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Introduction          Top

The Valmiki tract is broken and undulating often showing highly fragile geological formations. As a result, there are steep ravines, knife-edge ridges and precipitous walls formed by land slips and soil erosion.

The great Gandak and the Masan rivers collect all the water from the numerous, tortuous tributaries. These rivers and streams keep changing course from side to side, facilitated by the erosion prone sandy and immature soil of the banks. Seasonal rivers like Panchanad, Manor, Bhapsa and Kapan display peculiar behaviour of erosion at one place and deposition of transported soil at another place.

Hill system is the continuation of Siwalik Range, largely made of imperfectly compacted and ill-formed sandstone dotted with pebbles and boulders. Owing to the fragile nature of parent rock material, the soil produced at the foothill is immature, loose sand and display sheet. The menace is further aggravated by maltreatment of the forests by people in general, frequent fires and heavy grazing.


Conservation History       Top
The Valmiki Tiger Reserve, the 18th Tiger Reserve of the country and second in Bihar, is located in the northern most part of the West Champaran district of the State. Core area was declared as a National Park in 1989. Government of Bihar had notified 464.60 sq. km. area as Valmiki Wildlife Sanctuary in 1978. Later on, in 1990 an area of 419.18 sq. km. was added to the Sanctuary. Thus Valmiki Wildlife Sanctuary embraces a total area of 880.78 sq. km.

Census         Top



Archeology       Top


i) Lauriya Nanadan Garh: There is lion pillar of Ashoka, which is a single block of polished sand stone, 32'-9.5" in height with a diameter of 35.5" at base and 26.2" at the top. The pillar is over 2000 year old and in excellent condition. Nandgarh is a huge mound composed of bricks and is about 80 feet height. According to a authoritative source, it is an Ashok Stupa in which ashes of Buddha's funeral pyre were enshrined.

ii) Bawan Garhi: A name meaning 52 forts. It is also known as Tripan bazar. The remains of 52 forts and Tripan bazar are at Darubari.

iii) Someshwer Fort: Someshwar Fort is situated in Narkatiagani sub-division, near Nepal border, on top of the Someshwar hill at 2884 ft above M.S.L. It is in ruined state but its remains are well defined.

iv) Triveni: A holy place of Hindu. The name is derived from the fact that three rivers (Gandak, Sonha and Pachanad) merge here soon after they emerge from the hills. Triveni is also believed to be the site at which the fight commenced between Lords of Forest and Water (the Elephant and Crocodile).


Forest Types       Top
Bhabar Dun Sal Forest ,Dry Siwalik Sal Forest ,West Gangetic Moist Mixed Deciduous Forest ,Khair - Sisso Forest ,Cane brakes ,Eastern Wet Alluvial Grassland , Barringtonia Swamp Forest .

Major Flora

Sal (Shorea robusta), Asan, Karama, Semal, Khair, Cane(Calamus tenuis), Jamun, Siccharrum, Mahulan, Piper, Lagun (Peepar)

Main Species

Tiger, Leopard, Fishing Cat, Leopard Cat, Chital, Sambar, Hog Deer, Black Buck, Gaur, Sloth Bear, Langur, Rhesus Monkey .

Management       Top


The Eco-development activities were initiated in the Reserve in 1997-98.
Activities such as, distribution of fruit bearing plants, installation of hand pumps, construction of ponds, shed, irrigation channel were undertaken. Eco-awareness programme were conducted. Response of the villagers has been overwhelming. Inhabitants of some of the villages are coming forward voluntarily to assist forest staff in the protection of forest as well as in developmental activities.

Village Forest Protection Committees
Village Forest Protection Committees are working effectively, particularly in Madanpur and Harnatand forest ranges.

Education and Awareness

Eco-awareness programmes have been organised. Awareness material is being distributed.

Protection Squads / Patrolling


Government of India has cleared the scheme of a patrolling squad of B.M.P./Para-Military Force. Government of Bihar has sanctioned and purchased arms and ammunition. The Force would be deployed soon.


Constraints      Top

Human population

Nil in the core. At present, human population is around 81,000 people living in 142 villages situated on the fringe of the Reserve. Growth rate is not alarming.


Livestock population
Nil in the core. At present, there are around 60,000 livestock heads in and around the Reserve causing severe damage to the flora. Most of them are unproductive. The growth rate is very high..



Grazing is alarmingly high in the Reserve but less so in the core area.



Fire is rare in the core area. Buffer area is highly sensitive to fire. The graziers create most of the incidents of fire. There is no reported case of natural fire. Madanpur range is the most sensitive zone because of huge grassland and thickly populated village on the fringe of the forests.Fires take place generally between mid-February to June end.

Poaching of fauna and flora


There is no poaching in core area. Poaching is occasional in the buffer area but as the northern and Western boundaries of the Reserve lie along Nepal and Uttar Pradesh respectively. There is serious problem of poaching and smuggling of teak and cane from Madanpur block of the Reserve to different parts of Nepal e.g. Susta, Ratanganj and Rani Nagar. Armed gangs settled in Nepal are involved in illicit felling.
Criminals and Extremists
Since Valmiki Tiger Reserve is contiguous with international boundary and inter-state boundary, it is infested with hundreds of armed dacoits. They are involved in felling and smuggling of Khair and Cane. Role of police in Bihar has always been dubious in illicit felling of trees. On numbers of occasion, their connivance with criminals has been detected in felling of trees in the forest. These cases have been brought to the notice of higher officials including Home Secretary of Bihar. There is a need of dedicated police force at the disposal of the Field Director to meet the challenge.


Herbivores are highly susceptible to iodine deficiency disease, Goiter and Foot and Mouth diseases.


Boundary Demarcation

There is no clear demarcation of boundary on the ground of Core and Buffer zone.

Rights and Privileges

Altogether there are 42 villages where rights in respect of Harsingha (for plough) and Gharsingha (for construction of house), collection of fuel wood and grazing have been admitted by the Forest Settlement Officer at the time of notification of forests as P.Fs. Besides theses, there are 91 villages which avail the concessions though their claims were not examined by the Forest Settlement Officer. Another group of 52 villages also dot the forested tract in which Forest Settlement Officer did not admit rights though in some cases some privileges were allowed. These concessions, however, are to be met from, the Jahrta-parta (fallen material lying on the floor of the forest measuring up to 3' girth (over bark). Green trees are not to be felled for meeting the right holders' demand.

Rail-cum-Road Bridge

Due to construction of Baghva-Chitauni Rail-cum-Road Link Bridge, natural flow of Rohua and Kotaraihya streams were blocked and 1691 ha. forest land has been inundated that lead to 15000 trees dying in Madanpur block in the buffer of the Reserve.

Mining/Extraction of Bolder

Government of India has given conditional clearance in three mining leases after imposing seventeen conditions. The leaseholders did not fulfill any of the imposed conditions. So Government of India should reconsider cancellation of mining leases.

Control of the Buffer


Whole buffer area is under the control of the management.

Conflicts      Top



There is no perceptible man and animal conflict though occasionally Nilgai (Blue Bull) and other herbivore raid crop but this problem is not very serious.



People in the region earn enough to survive for about six months in a year. Due to lack of employment opportunity, they rely on forest resources for survival. There is need to generate employment for 20000 people for six months every year to minimise the pressure on the Reserve.

Action Points      Top

· Declaration of permanent Project Circle and Divisions.
· Streamlining the fund release.
· Sufficient funds for protection and development.
· Deployment of Para-Military Force.
· Employment opportunities for people in and around the Reserve.

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