Home | About us | Tigers & We | Project Tiger | Kids Section | Facts & Figures | Legal & Statutory | Conferences   
Crime Against Tiger | Report a Crime | Ecology & Research | Discussion Forum | Chat Room |Feedback | FAQ | Useful Links | Search   

 


Visit your reserve  
 
Tiger Reserve Service Directory
 
|| Visit Another Reserve ||      

 
 

Introduction        
 

Ranthambhore Tiger Reserve in the Rajasthan state of India, comprises distinct areas with varied conservation history and virtually separated geographically with mere narrow corridors linking them to the core, Ranthambhore National Park. These are mainly, the Ranthambhore National Park, Keladevi Sanctuary and Sawai Mansingh Sanctuary.

Ranthambhore National Park

The Ranthambhore National Park at the junction of the Aravalis and the Vindhyas, is a unique juxtaposition of natural and historical richness, standing out conspicuously in the vast, arid and denuded tract of eastern Rajasthan,barely 14 kilometer from the town, Sawai Madhopur. It spreads over a highly undulating topography varying from gentle to steep slopes; from flat topped hills (Indala, Doodh-Bhat and Chiroli) of the Vindhyas to the conical hillocks and sharp ridges of the Aravalis; from wide and flat valleys (Lahpur, Nalghati, Khachida, Anantpur etc.) to narrow rocky gorges. An important geological feature, the "Great Boundary fault' where the Vindhyas were brought against the much ancient Aravalis, passes from here.

Sawai Mansingh Sanctuary

The terrain is flat and rocky and some hills with gentle slopes. Devpura irrigation dam, in the Sanctuary is a useful source of water for wildlife and good habitat for aquatic flora and fauna.

Keladevi Sanctuary

The Keladevi Sanctuary is northern extension of the Ranthambhore Tiger Reserve in Karauli and Sawai Madhopur districts. There are hills in the south, north and eastern parts. At many places, it has a curious feature of two separate ridges running parallel to each other. The forest between such ridges dense. The Sanctuary is bounded in the west by the river Banas and in the south by the river Chambal. The Banas finally flows into the Chambal.

Some gorges due to high moisture retention and cooler temperature are nature's treasure houses. They are locally known as "Khoh". The slopes of the Khohs are covered with dense forest. These Khohs are the most suitable habitat for wildlife. The main Khohs in Keladevi are Nibhera, Kudka, Chiarmul, Ghanteshwar, Jail and Chidi. The forest cover is fairly sparse and spread out in the other parts.

 

Conservation History       
 
Ranthambhore Tiger Reserve was among the first nine Tiger Reserve declared in 1973 at the launch of Project Tiger in India. It comprised the former Sawai Madhopur Wildlife Sanctuary of 392.5 sq. km. Reserved Forest (constituted in 1955).

Ranthambhore National Park with an area of 274.5 sq. km. was constituted within the Tiger Reserve in 1980. In the then Tiger Reserve, the National Park area was being managed as the core and the rest as buffer until in 1992, Keladevi Sanctuary having area of 674 sq. km. of Protected Forest (constituted in 1983), Sawai Mansingh Sanctuary with an area of 127 sq. km. (constituted in 1984). Kualji Close Area of 7.58 sq. km. and some other forest areas were added to the Reserve.

^ Top

Census         
 
Animal
1990
1991
1993
1995
1997
 
     
  Tiger
  44
  45
  36
  38
  32
  Panther
  41
  50
  65
  63
  79
  Sloth Bear
  69
  67
  146
  134
  192
  Spotted Deer
  3833
  3881
  4964
  4849
  4496
  Sambhar
  2243
  2166
  2947
  3419
  2939
  Blue Bull
  688
  1007
  1839
  2648
  1946
  Chinkara
  307
  291
  497
  873
  780
  Wild Boar
  410
  632
  1088
  1825
  1936
  Jackal
  179
  158
  367
  707
  988
  Hyena
  46
   
  142
  330
  409


Offence cases

Nature of Offence
No. of Offence
 
 
1997-98
1998-99
 
  Illegal felling of trees
  350
  226
  Illegal grazing
  160
  117
  Illegal poaching
  11
  6
  Illegal mining
  51
  -
  Encroachment
  12
  09
  Others
  57
  145
  Total
  641
  503

 

Archeology       



Ranthambhore fort and temples of medieval period.


Forest Types       
 
Northern Tropical Dry Deciduous Forests
 

Major Flora

 

Main Species

Dhok mixed with Khair, Raunj, Goya, Chhela, Pipal, Vad, Amaltas, Gurjan, Siris Saintha, Gular, Tendu

Major Fauna

Main Species

 

Tiger, Leopard, Caracal, Ratel, Jungle Cat, Chital, Sambar, Blue Bull, Chinkara, Sloth Bear, Wild Boar, Jackal, Hyena, Common Langur, Common fox

Management       
 
Practices, Achievements and Shortfalls

The Protection of the flora and fauna is the main concern of the management of the Reserve.
When the tiger reserve was created, there were 12 villages inside and the whole area was allowed for grazing, and rights and concessions of the local people existed. After creation of tiger reserve the villages were shifted, grazing was restricted and rights and concessions of fuel wood and timber are allowed in a limited area (i.e. buffer zone) only.

For availability of water in summer 15 anicuts, 14 talai (ponds) were constructed.

Special Projects       


New Initiatives

Eco-development

India Eco-development Project (GEF-World Bank) is being implemented in Ranthambhore. Important components of Eco-development Project are

1. Improved Protected Area Management
2. Village Eco-development Programme
3. Environmental education and programme campaigns
4. Impact monitoring and Research
5. Information Technology Equipment


Village Forest Protection Committees
 
Ecodevelopment committees are being formed which shall help in forest protection as well.

Education and Awareness

Nature Interpretation Centre has been constructed and is being furnished.


Protection Squads / Patrolling

 

Special patrolling is done in the core area during monsoon against grazing.

 

Constraints      

 

Human population
 
There were 1210 people in 4 villages in the core and 3055 people in 19 villages in the buffer as per 1991 census. There were around one lakh people in 332 villages within 5 km. radius of the Reserve. The growth rate has been approx. 2.8 per cent.
 
Livestock population
 
There were 3177 cattle units in 4 villages in the core and around 25000 cattle units in 19 villages in the buffer as per 1991 census. There were around 1.43 lakh cattle units in 332 villages within 5 km. radius of the Reserve. The growth rate has been approx. 2 per cent.
 
Encroachment
 
Nine cases of encroachment over approx. 60 Bighas of forest area were registered in 1998-99.
 

Grazing

 

There are 332 villages in and around Ranthambhore Tiger Reserve (within 5 km. radius). The cattle pressure on the Reserve is as follows.

Portions of the Reserve
Number of Villages inside
No. of villages within 5 km.
Cattle population
 
Ranthambore National Park (core)
  4
  123
  51356
Sawai Mansingh Sanctuary (Buffer)
  4
  40
  31290
Kwaji close Area (Buffer)
  0
  23
  8092
Kela Devi Sanctuary (Buffer)
  15
  146
  52730
Total
  23
  332
  143468


There is very large grazing pressure on the Reserve. July to October is the most problematic period since most of the cattle of nearby villages move into to forest of the Reserve. The villagers persistently attempt to invade into the core area, i.e. Ranthambore National Park.During 1998-99, 95 cases of illegal grazing were registered in the core. The grazing by cattle has adversely affected regeneration. The quality of grasses has deteriorated in the buffer zone. The deteriorated buffer zone is not conducive to the growth of ungulate population.

Due to heavy grazing pressure it has not been possible to constitute core areas for Sawai Mansingh Sanctuary and Keladevi Sanctuary. The recurrent conflict with the villagers on the matter of grazing in the Ranthambore National Park has alienated the villagers from the management.

 

 

Fire

 

Occasional cases.

Poaching of fauna and flora

 

Traditionally Mogya, Kanjar, Banjara and Nat are associated with poaching. Some Rajput and Muslim are also involved in poaching. A well-organized effort to control poaching is lacking. Several poaching cases go unreported because of poor communication with the villagers.
 
Criminals and Extremists
 
Some criminal gangs are suspected to be operating in Kela Devi Sanctuary.
 

Diseases

 

Gal Ghotu (H.S.), Khur Pacca (F.M.D.), Fad Sujan (B.Q.)

Others

Spread of Prosopis juliflora

Prosopis juliflora had been a favourite species in the past in Rajasthan in afforestation activities. This was more so because of dire shortage of fuel wood for the consumption in villages and cities. The Prosopis juliflora plantations raised around the Reserve in the past has started posing serious problem to the eco-systems of Sawai Mansingh Sanctuary and Keladevi Sanctuary. It is encroaching upon the natural flora. The spread of Prosopis juliflora is being facilitated by goat and sheep. An estimated 100 sq. km. of the Reserve is infested with P. Juliflora. The Prosopis juliflora unfortunately was not tended in the past. It has gained bushy growth devoid of thick stem, therefore, it has not helped in reducing the pressure on forest where the demand is for good fuel wood or small timber for agricultural implements. The area covered by Prosopis juliflora is likely to double in the next 10 years.


Control of the Buffer

 

Buffer is under the unified control of the management.

Conflicts      
 

Man-Animal

 

Stray cases of man-animal conflicts in the nearby human habitation area occur.

Man-Forest

 

Cases of illegal cutting of trees and illegal grazing are there.

Action Points      

 

  1. The grazing practices should be regulated. A system of rotational and deferred grazing should be adopted. Cattle from far-flung villages should not be permitted to enter the Reserve.


  2. The protection network of the Reserve should be strengthened to counter the menace of illicit felling.

  3. Cattle drinking water facilities should be developed in the villages.

  4. Cooking gas connections should be provided to villages surrounding the Reserve at nominal costs. On a priority basis, a cooking gas supply network should be established so as to ensure timely supply in the villages. The Indian Oil Company (I.O.C.) having a bottling Plant at Sawai Madhopur, may be asked to adopt Ranthambhore National Park for Environment Conservation.

  5. Schemes such as biogas, fuel efficient crematoria, solar cookers, fuel efficient chullas etc should be promoted with active participation of Reserve staff.

  6. Integrated Dairy Development Project should be initiated around the Reserve.

  7. Soil Conservation measures including cost effective methods to promote natural and artificial regeneration (mostly sowing) should be adopted and executed on priority basis.

  8. The participation of villagers should be solicited in improving ecosystem and wild plants of commercial value.

  9. Cultivation of medicinal plants should be undertaken in peripheries (which are already deteriorated).

  10. The income from tourism should be handed over to village committees so that they have stakes in the management of Reserve and do not feel alienated.

  11. Staff should be regularly trained with carefully designed courses on wildlife.

  12. A regular system of physical fitness and weapon training should be established as is done in police.

  13. The communication skills of the staff should be improved through regular training conducted by experts.

  14. The staffing pattern should be designed to meet the special needs of the Reserve and regularly reviewed every five years. Bureaucratic hurdles and funding should not come in the way.