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Problem Of Poaching In The Country And Illegal Trade In Wildlife Body Parts And Derivatives :


Increased human and cattle population in our country has led to pressure on forest resources which has ultimately caused fragmentation and degradation of wildlife habitats. This, along with the increase in wildlife population in Protected Aeras have resulted in wildlife spilling over to other areas. Resultantly, increased man-animal conflicts leading to revenge killings and poaching are discernable. Though India is not a consumer of wildlife body parts, the demand from other countries for these with lucrative profits is a threat to wildlife.

Reasons for man-animal conflict :

Qualitative and quantitative decline of wildlife habitat including loss of prey base are main reasons for such a situation.


Ex-gratia and compensation payment :

Timely payment of ex-gratia for human deaths and compensation for loss of property is crucial to pacify the affected families.

Government of India has raised the compensation against loss of human life to Rs 1 lakh. During the IXth plan compensation to the tune of Rs. 332 lakhs has been provided by Government of India under Project Tiger and Project Elephant for loss of life and property.


  Poaching Of Major Wild Animals :

The wildlife products traded illegally from the country are Musk Deer for cosmetics, Bear for skin and bear bile, Elephant Tusk for ivory, Rhino horns for aphrodisiac, Tiger and Leopard skins for fashion products, oriental medicines and food, Snakes and Monitor Lizard skins for leather industry, Birds for pet trade and feather for decoration, Swiftlet nests for soups, Mongoose for bristles, Turtles for meat and soup, and Tibetan Antelope for shawls. It is estimated that quantum of trade in wildlife products is just next to narcotics, valued at nearly 20 billion dollars in the global market, of this more than one third is illegal.

Illicit tranboundary trade in tiger body parts has increased due to lucrative prices offered for tiger bones in particular. As per one estimate (1999) 10 gms. of tiger bones fetch a price of US$ 24.25 at the China-Vietnam border, i.e above Rs. 1 lakhs per kg. In Japan, trade in tiger parts and products was permitted till April, 2000. This has now been banned after persuasion by the global conservation community. Difficulties being faced by developing countries like India in controlling illicit trade in tiger parts and products, have been brought to the notice of CITES (Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora) time and again. The Convention has appealed to the International Community to support India in it's efforts for conserving tigers.

The list of poaching cases of major wild animals detected in various states during the last three years :

Reported cases of Tiger Poaching:

1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003
14 38 39 35   47   8

Reported cases of Leopard Poaching :

1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003
28 80 201 69  87  15

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