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Tiger Reserve Service Directory
 
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Introduction 

Bhadra situated in the midst of Western Ghat in Chikmagalur and Shimoga districts of Karnataka is surrounded by lofty hill ranges of Mullaianagiri, Hebbegiri, Gangegiri & Babaudangiri. and also the picturesque Bhadra river and its tributaries like Somavahini, Thadabehalla and Odirayanahalla. A dam has been constructed across Bhadra river near Lakkavalli. The reserve consists of two main areas, Muthodi and Lakkavalli.

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Conservation History

The area was declared as "Jagara Valley Wildlife Sanctuary" by the Government of Mysore in 1951, vide Government Notification No. A & F. 6175/90/10 FT-112-40-2, dated 21.2.51 covering an area of 77.45 sq. miles. After a systematic survey and census of the entire area including animals, birds and plants, it was thought to bring some more area under the Jagara Valley Forests. The adjacent area, which were rich in wildlife was surveyed and the Sanctuary was reconstituted in the year 1974, as Bhadra Wildlife Sanctuary", vide Notification No. AFD-25-FWL-74, dated 6.9.74, covering an area of 492.46 sq. km. as per section 18 of Wildlife Protection Act 1972 (Intention), and confirmed under section 26 of Wildlife Protection Act 1972, vide notification Fee-58-FW-96, dated 9.3.98.

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Census

Census figures of 1993

         
Animal
Male
Female
Cub
Total
 
  Tiger
  12
  10
  3
  25
  Leopard
  4
  6
  1
  11
  Elephant
  24
  114
  23
  161
  Gaur
  43
  71
  25
  139
  Spotted deer
  --
  --
  --
  --
  Sambhar
  --
  --
  --
  --
  Wild boar
  --
  --
  --
  --
  Muntjac
  --
  --
  --
  --
  Bonnet
  --
  --
  --
  --

Census figures of 1997

         
Animal
Male
Female
Cub
Total
 
  Tiger
  15
  12
  6
  33
  Leopard
  6
  11
  4
  21
  Elephant
  50
  127
  13
  203
  Gaur
  63
  69
  54
  186
  Spotted deer
  213
  385
  182
  780
  Sambhar
  173
  237
  108
  518
  Wild boar
  88
  88
  294
  470
  Muntjac
  243
  162
  344
  749
  Bonnet
  90
  73
  81
  248

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Archeology

Ancient temples like, Mhakta Markandya temple of Khandya, and Bhavani Shankar temple of Hebbe are an attraction. These temples were built during Hoisala regime.

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Forest Types

Southern tropical dry deciduous dry teak ,Northern tropical dry deciduous mixed forest ,Dry deciduous scrub forest ,Boswellia forest ,Dry bamboo brakes , Anogeissus pendula forest .

Major Flora

Main Species

Tree:

Teak, Rosewood, Mathi, Honne, Nandi, Kindal etc.

 

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Management

Practices, Achievements and Shortfalls

Boundary consolidation, protection, habitat improvement, communication network, roads and bridges. Infrastructure development, tourism development, Socio-economic development. Research activities are practised. Infrastructural development in the form of office and staff quarters has been achieved as per allocation.


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Special Projects

New Initiatives

Eco-development

Some sort of gainful employment has to be provided to the villagers living adjoining to the Sanctuary area in addition to providing fuelwood, fodder and small timber for agriculture implements, so as to relieve the pressure on the forests.

The alternative sources to meet the minimum needs of villagers of the surrounding areas are to be made with the following measures.


1.
Providing sanitary facilities
2.
Providing water facilities
3.
Culverts, Bridges for roads
4.
Providing solar lamps
5.
Providing bio-gas plants
6.
Vaccination to local cattle

 

 

 

 

At least 4 squads of 10 persons in each squad is essential for effective protection. There is a need for creating of strike force of 10 persons under a leadership of a Range Forest Officer, with a minivan for quick movement to the spot of illegal activities and to curb such activities. This will even create fear among the smugglers and poachers. Workshops shall be conducted for rural youths as well for the wildlife enthusiasts and members of the village committees, elected representation of local panchayats etc., these trained persons shall act as coordinators between authorities and rural public in planning, protection and Eco-development works.

Village Forest Protection Committees

To protect the tiger reserve from fire, the meetings are conducted involving the leaders of the surrounding villages.

Protection Squads / Patrolling

In order to control poaching and smuggling, anti-poaching squads, comprising 5 member in each squad are stationed in sensitive areas. Due to paucity of funds this has not been increased.

Education and Awareness

Nature Education Camps for students of schools and colleges, institutions, volunteers and wildlife enthusiasts, teachers of educational institutions for 3 days, are conducted to create awareness on Wildlife.

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Constraints

Human population

Around 36,029 in numbers in surrounding 26 villages.

Around 736 families in the core.


Livestock population

Around 16249 About 4000 in the reserve.

Encroachment

Encroachment occurred after 27.4.78 and inclusive of ineligible encroachment prior to 27.4.78 for which proceedings under Section 64(A) initiated.

Grazing


Cattle grazing is mostly restricted to buffer zone especially, in the Lakkavalli area.

FIRE

One of the primary factors that has adversely affected the status of habitat and biodiversity in the Sanctuary is the occurrence of regular fires. Due to forest fires, which are some times deliberate, the natural regeneration is either lost or retarded and the forest floor is deprived of rich humus which the essential for growth and productivity.

Poaching of fauna and flora

Bhadra Wildlife Sanctuary is the natural habitat of some of the prized timber species such as Teak and Rosewood. Besides, extensive teak plantations have been raised in the past (1903-1978) throughout the Sanctuary. Timber smuggling is common in Lakkavalli and Thanigebyle ranges. The smugglers use carts and bullocks to drag the teak timber, sometimes they may even saw the sizes inside the forests. Poaching activities are found in places which are nearer to the estates

Offence (Poaching of Fauna )

Date of committing/detection of the offence
Seizure No. of persons arrested
 
19.12.95
One Gun. (Local) 2 persons
27.05.96
Deer skin-1Horn -1 4 persons
02.11.96
Deer (cub)Cycle-1 1 person
02.01.97
One Gun.(Local) 1 person
25.07.97
Deer (dead) Accused not traced
18.03.99
Small Indian civet 2 persons

Offence cases (Poaching of flora)

Years
Total cases
   
1994-95
  80
1995-96
  148
1996-97
  187
1997-98
  244
1998-99
  172
Total
  831


 

 

 

 

Criminals and Extremists

Nil

Diseases

The Sanctuary was earlier famous for Indian bison, which numbered more than a thousand. Rinder pest disease took a heavy toll on these animals during 1998-99. Now no diseases are noticed. Vaccination of livestock of surrounding villages against foot and mouth disease has been done.

Other

Tunga-Bhadra Lift Irrigation Project

Proposal is afoot to lift water from Tunga river, pump it into Bhadra river and further lift it and take the water in canals through part of the P.T. near Lakkavalli. This project is called Tunga Bhadra lift irrigation project. This will irrigate some dry land in Kadur, Tarikere Taluks of Chikmangalur District. Odirayanahalla Diversion Canal Scheme will take away 12 ha. forest area due to laying of the canal.

Control of the Buffer

Buffer is under the control of the management of the Reserve.

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Conflicts

Man-Animal

Wild animals especially, wild elephant, normally cause damage to the human life and crops by entering the private lands and on outside the Sanctuary.

Man-Forest

The Bhadra tiger Reserve has 16 revenue villages comprising of 736 families.

Wild Animal -Forest

Nil

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Action Points

Fires cause irreparable, damage to the microfauna besides affecting the normal life, growth, propagation and movement of many larger animals and birds. Hence, preventive and fire control measures have to be given top priority in the habitat development of the Sanctuary.

In order to control poaching and smuggling, anti poaching squads are to be stationed in sensitive areas. It is proposed to have a protection squad of 10 persons in each range. There is need for creating a strike force of 10 persons under the leadership of Lakkavalli Range Forest Officer with a minivan for quick movement to the spot of illegal activities and to curb such activities. This will even create fear among the smugglers and poachers.

Preventive and fire control measures have to be given top priority in the habitat development of the Sanctuary.

To prevent the human deaths and crop damages works like, digging of elephant proof trenches are to be taken up in a phased manner. During 1998-99, 4 km of elephant proof trenches have been dug.


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